The first Jewish settlers arrived in Amsterdam, Holland, 1593.
Jews of Bavaria were granted equality, 1872.
Christians in France were forbidden, under pain of death, to shelter or converse with Jews, by order of Louis XIII, 1615.
An order expelling Jews from Moscow was published, 1891.
The new Austrian constitution guaranteed freedom of the Jewish religion, 1848.
A petition signed by 250,000 Germans, 1881, was presented to the government requesting the barring of foreign Jews from admission into Germany. This petition marked the opening of modern German anti-Semitism.
The directors of the Dutch West India Co., in 1655, refused to grant permission to Governor Peter Stuyvesant to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam. This put an end to official efforts to bar Jews from North America. The Dutch West India Co. also specified that no restriction of trade be imposed upon the Jewish settlers. Thus it guaranteed not only the physical inviolability of the Jews but also their orderly economic development and progress. The only condition contained in the directive provided that “the poor among them shall be supported by their own nation.” This gave further impetus to the growth of Jewish philanthropy in the New World.
Widespread Russian pogroms started in Elisabethgrad, 1881.
Mussolini was executed by Italian partisans, 1945.